Brownfields redevelopment in Ontario

        The process of brownfields redevelopment is an important way to improve the environment and harmonize the human co-existance with the nature in industrialized countries. It is especially important for urban areas in mega cities like Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The same problem applies to industrialized areas with high density of population as it can be found in Europe. In general, it is a global problem of XXI century which requires a generic approach. 
       Brownfields are lands on which industrial or commercial activity took place in the past and that may need to be cleaned up before they can be redeveloped. To encourage redevelopment, Ontario’s environmental legislation provides general protection from environmental orders for historic contamination to municipalities, creditors and others. On October 1, 2004, this legislation will also provide property owners with general protection from environmental cleanup orders for historic contamination after they have appropriately remediated a site. Ontario’s new Record of Site Condition Regulation (O. Reg. 153/04) details requirements related to site assessment and clean up. 
       The approach known as the Record of Site Condition Process has been introduced in the Province Of Ontario since mid of 1990s and includes several steps which combine desktop studies, intrusive soil and ground water investigation and remedial activities. The first step, Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA), is an initial environmental investigation which includes the review of records pertaining to environmental condition of site, or desktop studies, interview with knowledgeable personnel, walk in inspection and environmental inventory of the site. The main objective of Phase I ESA is to assess the potential for contamination in soil and ground water at the site.  
       The next step in environmental investigation is the Phase II ESA. The objective of this step is to identify possible contamination, if any, and further delineate it vertically and laterally. This is an iterative process and involves intrusive investigating techniques including soil drilling, ground water monitor installation, soil and ground water sampling. Some elements of desktop studies, like computer modeling of contaminated plume in ground water, can be included at this stage. The results of the Phase II ESA should create a detailed “picture” of contaminated plume in soil and ground water at the site for the purpose of the following remedial activities.     
       The purpose of a Phase II ESA is to confirm the presence of and characterize the substances of concern at a given site. Characterization may range from a simple identification to a full delineation of the contamination on site. The key technical feature that distinguishes Phase I and II ESAs is the use of quantitative sampling and analytical techniques in Phase II studies. If contamination is encountered on site, the Phase III ESA or remedial program is undertaken which includes a broad range of chemical and physical approaches both in-situ and ex-situ. Finally all stages of ESA lead to the issuing a Record of Site Condition (RSC) which is a final environmental description of the site.
 
 
Brownfields redevelopment in Ontario / Kopetskyy V., Phimister J., Kirchmair G.  // І-й Всеукраїнський з’їзд екологів: міжнар. наук.-техн. конф., 4–7 жовтня 2006 р.: тези допов. – Вінниця, 2006. – С. 160.
МНПК “Перший Всеукраїнський з’їзд екологів”,  4-7 жовтня, 2006 р. 
Вінницький національний технічний університет
Секція 3 “Проблеми загальної екології та захисту біосфери. Агроекологія та радіоекологія”.
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