Solid waste management - Experience in Switzerland

Annual spending on the environment in Ukraine is about one hundredth of a percent. Environmental tax in Ukraine pay atmospheric pollutants and water, radioactive waste custodians and those importing and selling vehicles. Ukraine continues to go under him and replaces cherry orchard in concrete and dump. At about the same in the 80's was in Switzerland. Now it is - one of the cleanest countries in Europe.

Swiss miracle

Lead ratings cleanest in Europe 2009 according to "Forbes" okro and be in first place for speed solving environmental problems (according to the world's environmental performance index ─ Environmental Performance Index (EPI)) Switzerland helped effective environmental policies, its government began to implement in 70 - 80 years of the last century. This policy is based on two pillars: good public funding and the active participation of the public.

Recycling and waste management played a significant role in politics in Switzerland because a large number of its territory was under the landfill. It therefore had to act quickly and effectively.

The state has introduced an environmental tax. Given that Switzerland is decentralized, most taxes are reduced to the jurisdiction of local, because people just see what pays and often may require a tax increase.

Thus, every citizen pays out of pocket about 35 USD per month in municipal structures for recycling.

Moreover, in most cantons operates a so-called system of marking landfill separate ejection of white, green and brown glass, elektropryboriv and home appliances, construction debris, cans, dead animals and vegetable oil. If someone does not want to play with the waste, it can buy from a company that removes debris, a special package where kydatyme all during the series (20 ─ 30 USD per kilogram).

Violators of this rule are waiting fines and hide them just do not succeed. There were cases where special garbage police, acting in Switzerland, conducted an examination even debris ejected illegal to set the owner.

Another important point was the cooperation with businesses and the general implementation of waste management.

Switzerland handles about 80% of its waste. There are 7 large organizations with recycling: FERRO-Recycling (cans), IGORA (household aluminum), INOBAT (domestic battery), PET-Recycling Switzerland (bottle), the SENS Foundation (electrical and electrical equipment), TEXAID (textiles) and VetroSwiss (glass) that are integrated into Swiss Recycling.

In Switzerland, a large number of waste incineration plants and factories of recycling. Many entrepreneurs are doing it, because he understands that what is lying in containers actually incredibly valuable raw material (for example: zinc can be more than one third of conventional batteries, while the metal content of the ore ranges from 1 to 20%). Recently even become popular to take in neighboring countries certain waste - after processing, they bring a lot of money. Rubbish dumped in Switzerland, for example, Italy.

Currently, Switzerland has adopted and is trying to implement policies for sustainable development.

However, please remember that the purity cited in Switzerland does not laws nor enterprise, and above all - ecological thinking citizens. Neatly smitnychky - four or five in ryadochok - not accustomed to, if not understanding people that it is for their own good. There are no house edge. When changes are needed, each starting them off. And the Swiss just do not understand how you can steal, bribe giving, not clean up after themselves ...

Lead ratings cleanest in Europe 2009 according to "Forbes" okro and be in first place for speed solving environmental problems (according to the world's environmental performance index ─ Environmental Performance Index (EPI)) Switzerland helped effective environmental policies, its government began to implement in 70 - 80 years of the last century. This policy is based on two pillars: good public funding and the active participation of the public.

Recycling and waste management played a significant role in politics in Switzerland because a large number of its territory was under the landfill. It therefore had to act quickly and effectively.

The state has introduced an environmental tax. Given that Switzerland is decentralized, most taxes are reduced to the jurisdiction of local, because people just see what pays and often may require a tax increase.

Thus, every citizen pays out of pocket about 35 USD per month in municipal structures for recycling.

Moreover, in most cantons operates a so-called system of marking landfill separate ejection of white, green and brown glass, elektropryboriv and home appliances, construction debris, cans, dead animals and vegetable oil. If someone does not want to play with the waste, it can buy from a company that removes debris, a special package where kydatyme all during the series (20 ─ 30 USD per kilogram).

Violators of this rule are waiting fines and hide them just do not succeed. There were cases where special garbage police, acting in Switzerland, conducted an examination even debris ejected illegal to set the owner.

Another important point was the cooperation with businesses and the general implementation of waste management.

Switzerland handles about 80% of its waste. There are 7 large organizations with recycling: FERRO-Recycling (cans), IGORA (household aluminum), INOBAT (domestic battery), PET-Recycling Switzerland (bottle), the SENS Foundation (electrical and electrical equipment), TEXAID (textiles) and VetroSwiss (glass) that are integrated into Swiss Recycling.

In Switzerland, a large number of waste incineration plants and factories of recycling. Many entrepreneurs are doing it, because he understands that what is lying in containers actually incredibly valuable raw material (for example: zinc can be more than one third of conventional batteries, while the metal content of the ore ranges from 1 to 20%). Recently even become popular to take in neighboring countries certain waste - after processing, they bring a lot of money. Rubbish dumped in Switzerland, for example, Italy.

Currently, Switzerland has adopted and is trying to implement policies for sustainable development.

However, please remember that the purity cited in Switzerland does not laws nor enterprise, and above all - ecological thinking citizens. Neatly smitnychky - four or five in ryadochok - not accustomed to, if not understanding people that it is for their own good. There are no house edge. When changes are needed, each starting them off. And the Swiss just do not understand how you can steal, bribe giving, not clean up after themselves ...

"Hopelessness" in Ukrainian

According to theoretical calculations, about 7% of Ukraine (over 4 million ha) cover waste. Annually produce about 12 million tons of municipal solid waste (hereinafter - TVP), 7% of which is recycled. The rest finds refuge in landfills, including unauthorized (garbage dump them much cheaper compared to legal).

Ukrainian legislation on recycling TVP is mostly declarative and contains many contradictions. Specifically century. 33 Law of Ukraine "On Waste" stated: "It is prohibited to mix or disposal of waste for disposal in Ukraine where there is an appropriate technology."

Household waste of various kinds in Ukraine:

1) burned at the plants, "Energy" (Kyiv), "Ecology of Ukraine" (Kiev), several incineration plants (about 4% of solid waste);

2) batteries and accumulators disposed at the "Silver" in Lviv;

3) A new paper from waste paper makes several pulp and paper mills;

4) buying glassware processing throughout Ukraine; same with metals;

5) fluorescent lamp converts Nikitovsky mercury complex;

6) There are even companies that are buying for disposal of electronic waste.

In addition, there are a number of private enterprises and foreign initiatives utilization of business in Ukraine. However, these companies often stick in the wheel inserts if not the state, the "myesni": the eastern regions has its own corporate culture.

Let's not dwell on how these businesses are environmental, and pay attention to the conflict. Because according to the legislation are important only technology utilization (as listed above it is clear that they exist) and is not considered a real power and volume of waste that these companies can change, it turns out that most of the trash in landfills is illegal.

The state would have to actively tackle the problem of waste, not to bury large proportion of fertile land for waste.

In practice, stimulate waste disposal through subsidies to enterprises that are engaged already mentioned environmental taxes and charges for placing garbage. Almost not satisfied century. 35-1 of the Law "On Waste" on sorting TVP and not accelerated consideration of a bill banning the use of plastic bags.

Not least because of the lack of a clear answer to the question of who is responsible for the disposal of TVP. Thus, the law mentions that the collection, temporary storage and removal of part of the TVP utilities. That public utilities engaged in the problem of waste removal, but that does not mean they have their pereroblyuvaty.

In Ukraine 8 companies engaged in garbage collection: PJSC "Kievspetstrans" of "Lord of the Rose", LLC "Celtic" CE "ATP Shevchenko District Council", JSC "Spetskomuntekhnika", LLC "Kramar-Risayklinh" SE "company Altvater Kyiv" and of "Grinko-Kyiv". Only the last two sorted waste. However, it plays a small role: most debris still vidlezhuyetsya in landfills.

Their number we outnumbered reserves almost doubled.

The bike can adapt to the Ukrainian roads

Ukraine can get out of the crisis, using the Swiss experience. Increase spending from the state budget - not quite the Ukrainian version. So we offer a number of budgetary steps.

1. Explain the dangers of population from the usual throwing garbage and benefit from its processing.

It may sound rather declarative, but Ukraine should form an ecological consciousness. The real situation is this: many people do not know basic things, such as that one battery pollute 400 gallons of water or 20 square meters. m of soil. Therefore, sorting and recycling for people who do not live near a dumping directly are not important. Need PSAs, relevant government measures naviyuvatymut idea of ​​recycling. Responsible attitude should inspire more children in school.

While recent developments consciousness Ukrainian significantly changed, they became more responsible and ready for action. However, it should be recalled that the "do not litter!" Should not only on the Maidan, and purity - is primarily our behavior. Change your attitude - this is one of the simplest steps and along a global goal.

2. Transfer fees ecological competence of local authorities (decentralization, which is now in testing Sheremet Lviv). Thus, every citizen will understand what will go his money. And luchanynu not have to pay for disposal of Donetsk. Create a cooperation agreement in the field with Switzerland to learn from experience: there the invite experts and more.

3. Ukrainian legislation Browse: justify legally binding regulations. This requires either a law on waste sorting or extend the relevant article of the Law "On Waste", by amending the tangent laws, tax code and more.

4. This law provides for the state registry profession sorter garbage and create jobs. Sorting trash can be the source of income for homeless: public services for a fee they will offer to do it, if the majority of the inhabitants of a separate building or area do not want to dismantle the garbage themselves.

4. Introducing fines for people who do not sort their waste and do not pay for their sort, as in Switzerland.

Given the fact that Ukraine has no money to prepare a special kind of police, as in Switzerland, no penalty will be charged individually, and on the whole local community, which has waste. Amount of the fine will increase if the violation persists. In the future, you can go to the individual fines.

4. Grants companies that provide recycling, as well as those which provide specific measures for collecting and recycling of damaged or worn-out products, mechanism for implementing reuse materials and so on. Create additional tax - the company that such a mechanism does not think through. In fact, subsidies covered by the tax with given neekolohichnist most businesses in the state treasury were the first of many revenue.

Another step would be to introduce a cost of recycling waste product to its price. But before that you need to spend a substantial analytical work to determine if practically possible to run such a mechanism, especially in relation to imported goods.

5. Parallel with the preceding paragraphs should be in attracting numerous environmental organizations to promote cooperation in relation to the popularity of recycling waste and their use as raw materials. In Ukraine, there are some projects (such as "ecofans", whose goal is to collect the batteries and their recycling vidvezennya paragraph), but they are not widespread. It is in the public eco-environment associations may be entrepreneurs who will take an active procurement and processing of waste, such as the German "dual system" to revive the movement for recycling and amassed a considerable income. If it is unpopular, then you need to contact doormen who has put forward ideas for building their plants in Ukraine.

6. Transfer initiative on waste management to private entrepreneurs. Create them ideal for the business environment, encourage dispose of waste, both local and international firms.

7. Establishing a plan of gradual replacement of obsolete equipment in public enterprises. Upgrading of existing waste management companies. Yes, already mentioned plant "Energy" polluting. Cleaning equipment it needs to be replaced, as well as to establish a massive debris flow that is converted into electricity.

8. Maintaining and helps translate ideas Ukrainian scientists on different ways of disposal or use of the garbage. For example, Lviv "Arhentumu" do not even need money - just batteries, materials for recycling.
All the updated changes kraschaye, transformed into other forms of existence ... I think this maxim is particularly relevant for dust. Dig 7% of the debris from Ukraine's real. Others could - we could. So why not much want?

Source: http://studway.com.ua/swiss-experience/

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