The results of monitoring a cultivated landfill after an ecological disaster

The changes undergoing in the waste disposal site justify treating it as a gigantic „bioreactor” with the processes aimed at the stabilization of the weight of the disposed waste [3,9]. Decomposition products include solid, liquid and gaseous substances, most of which may pose threat for the environment.

Chemical changes taking place in the disposal site comprise processes like hydrolysis, chemical weathering, precipitation, sorption, desorption and ion exchange [1,2]. Biological processes in the waste disposal site occur in stages, each of them requiring its own environment and substrata and resulting in characteristic final products. The key issue to be considered during the exploitation of waste management establishments is their proper location and operation [7], as well as the monitoring of the processes taking place in the three phases: the pre-exploitation phase, the exploitation phase and the post-exploitation phase for thirty years from its closing. The scope of the tested parameters and their frequency resulting from the appropriate binding regulations are presented in table 1.

Table 1. The scope of the tested parameters and their frequency in accordance with the "Environmental Ministry Regulation on the scope, time, manner, and conditions for monitoring landfills
(Journal of Laws from 2002, No 220 item 1858 as amended)


No.

Measured  parameter

Frequency of measurements

The pre-exploitation phase

The exploitation phase

The post-exploitation phase

1

The rate of the surface waters flow

one-time

every three months

every six months

2

The surface waters composition

one-time

every three months

every six months

3

The leachate waters volume

none

every month

every six months

4

The leachate waters composition

none

every three months

every six months

5

The underground waters level

one-time

every three months

every six months

6

The underground waters composition

one-time

every three months

every six months

7

The landfill gas emission

none

every month

every six months

8

The composition of the landfill gas

none

every month

every six months

9

The efficiency of the landfill gas draining system

none

none

every twelve months

The paper presents the results of selected monitoring tests performed for the landfill after the ecological disaster: electrical conductivity and Total Organic Carbon. The results of the tests conducted on the samples taken in the measuring points : Z1 - the reservoir of the leachate waters and C2 on the Lubrzanka watercourse flowing in the area affected by the landfill.

THE ISSUE CHARACTERISTICS

In the central part of Swietokrzyskie Province  (southern Poland) there is a  closed domestic waste disposal site which provided services for the agglomeration of Kielce. This landfill is located in the exhausted mineral working where quartzites had formerly been excavated. This location was exceptionally inappropriate and led to an ecological disaster. The exhausted mineral working had an area of 2.2 ha and had a shape of a basin filled with water. In 1972 waste started to be disposed of, directly into the water stagnating in the basin. The base had not been properly protected and the daily amount of the dry waste was over 1000 m3. Until 1978 also liquid waste was disposed of in the landfill, as well as post-neutralization slime from the Automotive Plant. The waste included i.a. effluents containing cyanides, chloramines as well as acid and alkaline waste containing sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, boric acid, and the waste resulting from the processes of steel blackening and tempering.

As a result of the improper location of the facility, as well as the lack of necessary technical protections, hazardous substances permeated deep  into the ground, which led to the pollution of underground waters and soils in the surroundings of the working. As the landfill bowl was filling up, an increasing volume of leachate waters drained from the landfill, badly poisoning plants on an adjacent slope. The extent to which the forest got destroyed can be compared to that caused by the most troublesome chemical industry plants [8].

 In 1978 the recultivation of the facility started. Consequently, year by year, the negative impact of the topical landfill on the natural environment decreases [4].

 The recultivation works covered the area of the landfill and its surroundings on the west side. The works comprised:

  • constructing a watertight clay barrier in the front edge of the landfill in order to minimize the seepage of leachate waters into the valley of the nearby river Lubrzanka,
  • profiling the waste deposit with the slope app.10% to the west ,
  • building a leachate drainage system from the western part of the landfill and directing the waters to a reinforced concrete tank (Z1) with the volume of 21 m3,
  •  conducting passive degasification of the landfill bowl through a network of gravel-filled trenches, with an outlet to six reinforced-concrete degasification wells,
  • building a sealing layer for  a side slope and the landfill bowl from clay with the thickness
    of 30-40 cm,
  • recreating a soil-forming layer with the thickness of 20 cm, using fertile ground on which lupine was planted,
  • building surrounding collector trenches to direct rainwater and meltwater to the Lubrzanka river
  • In order to drain the degraded area, in the years 1990-1992 lateral drains were constructed below the landfill, to direct the polluted groundwater to the lower tank (Z2) with the capacity of 27 m3.

MONITORING RESULTS

In 1978 first tests aimed at investigating the effect of leachate waters on the purity of the Lubrzanka river were conducted. Samples were taken four times within fifteen months. The leachate waters were investigated in twelve points, along the whole length of the trench, starting at the edge of the landfill bowl and going as far as the outlet into the Lubrzanka river. The leachate waters flowing out of the waste disposal site showed very high level of chemical pollution increasing with time, and in the case of some parametres exceeding the standard for sewage introduced into the sewage system . The destruction of the greenery around the landfill was documented in scientific literature as a classical example of ecological disaster [8].


а)

b)

Fig.1 The changes of ECp and TOC parametres in the marked leachate waters:
a) in the first half of the  year b) in the second half of the year


а)


b)
Fig.2. The changes of ECp and TOC parametres in the marked surface waters:
a) in the first half of the year b) in the second half of the year.

After the landfill had been closed, the recultivation works were performed.  The monitoring research is conducted in accordance with the binding regulations in the area of the exhausted waste disposal site in Barcza and comprises the monitoring of: surface waters, underground waters, leachate waters and   measuring  the landfill gas. The results obtained for the years 2006-2010 for selected parameters of leachate and surface waters are presented in Fig.1 and 2.

The results of testing leachates (Fig.1) and surface waters (Fig.2) are different in the first and the second half of the year, which is connected with the amount of atmospheric rainfall, and consequently the emission of pollutants in leachates. A positive sign of the environmental restoration is that the pollution level in leachates and surface waters shows the tendency of decreasing. Changes in the condition of plants that are growing again confirm the improvement in the state of the environment.  The tree crop that used to be destroyed is gradually restoring itself.

 


Pic. 1. The waste disposal site in Barcza during the exploitation and after its recultivation (the present state)

CONCLUSION

The analysis of the results of the monitoring tests conducted for the waste disposal site in Barcza shows that the technical works performed within the environment recultivation contribute to the decrease of its negative impact on the environment. The surface water in the area of the landfill ( the Lubrzanka River) falls within the first class of purity, according to the current regulations [6]. The leachate waters do  not exceed the highest admissible values of the sewage parameters [5] except for the total organic carbon concentration. With years one may notice  that the negative impact of the topical landfill on the natural environment is decreasing. In the area of the landfill the greenery is starting to grow again.

REFERENCES
1. Debra R. Reinhard and A. Basel Al-Yousfi, (1996); The impact of leachate recirculation on municipal solid waste landfill operating characteristics. Waste Maanagement & Researtch  14, 337-346.
2. McBean E.A, Rovers F.A., Farquhar G.J., (1995); Solid waste landfill engineering and   design, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey.
3. Mostafa Waritch, (2002), Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results, Waste Management  22,  7-17.
4. Przedsiebiorstwo Geologiczne Sp. z o.o, 2010: Sprawozdanie roczne z lokalnego monitoringu przeprowadzanego w 2009 r. w rejonie skladowiska odpadów w Barczy, gmina Zagnansk.
5. Rozporzadzenie Ministra Srodowiska z dnia 24 lipca 2006 r. w sprawie warunków, jakie nalezy spelnic przy wprowadzaniu scieków do wód lub ziemi, oraz w sprawie substancji szczególnie szkodliwych dla srodowiska wodnego (Dz. U. z 2006, Nr 137 poz. 984 ze zm.).
6. Rozporzadzenie Ministra Srodowiska z dnia 20 sierpnia 2008 r. w sprawie sposobu klasyfikacji stanu jednolitych czesci wód powierzchniowych (Dz. U. z 2008, Nr 162 poz. 1008).
7. Rozporzadzenie Ministra Srodowiska z dnia 24 marca 2003 r. w sprawie szczególowych  wymagan dotyczacych lokalizacji, budowy, eksploatacji i zamkniecia, jakim powinny odpowiadac poszczególne typy skladowisk odpadów (Dz. U. Nr 61, poz. 549 ze zm.).
8. Wasiak G., (1983): Gospodarka odpadami komunalnymi w srodowisku przyrodniczym (Municipal waste management in natural environment), Warszawa 1983.
9. Xian Qu, Pin-Jing He, Li-Ming Shao, Duu-Jong Lee, (2008), Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: Initial stage, Chemosphere 70 , 769 – 777.

УДК 628.54
Kwiatkowski T. The results of monitoring a cultivated landfill after an ecological disaster [Електронний ресурс]  / [Kwiatkowski Tomasz,  Zygadlo Maria] // Збірник наукових статей “ІІІ-го Всеукраїнського з’їзду екологів з міжнародною участю”. – Вінниця, 2011. – Том.1. – С.68–70. Режим доступу: http://eco.com.ua/

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