Influence of territiorial society on substantial diminishing of sociogen factors of ecological threats of handing consumption waste

tiz_009_zemlia.gifEcological safety examined as a dynamic constituent of the regional system which provides it harmonious development in the conditions of protected from the real and potential anthropogenic influences.
Strength security is mainly determined probability of displays of danger. It needs comprehensive study terms of forming of ecological danger.
Actuality consists in the necessity of analysis of mutual relations for the system « society - environment » and intentions of harmonization on this basis of activity and necessities of humanity with ecological requirements.

 

Analysis of previous researches
         There are different classifications of the dangerous phenomena and processes which influence on worsening of the states of ecological safety. Іn [1] an ecological danger is structured on social, biosphere and resource constituents. Most objective classification, consilient in principle with opinion many researchers, is resulted in-process [2].
         Incompleteness of this classification is determined, in particular, by a not account some enough meaningful factors of harmful physical action. It is not taken into account also, that the specific terms of concrete region change priority of constituents of danger. lately develops system dynamic conception of management tekhnog-ecological safety[3].
         On the expounded reasons, and also other circumstances of objective and to sub objective character, there are situations, when it is impossible or difficultly enough to set the degree of ecological danger. In such cases come running to the expert estimations [4]. Advantage of consulting models is possibility of their construction on the basis of «unclear» information and knowledges.
         Purpose: increase of efficiency of management ecological safety at municipal level by influence on the sociogen factors of forming of danger in industry of handling wastes of consumption.
 
Material and research results
An ecological danger shows by itself a hierarchical structure (Figure 1).

 


Figure 1- Structure of ecological danger at municipal level

 

1. Natural type arises up as a result of action of natural factors, processes and phenomena (hurricanes, floods).  
2. Аrises up by the processes of extraterrestrial origin (ultraviolet, space bodies).
3. Atmospheric phenomena (hurricanes, tornados).
4. Hydrosphere phenomena (floods, tsunamis).
5. Lithosphere phenomena (earthquakes, volcanos).
6. Biological phenomena (epidemics of infectious diseases, invasion of rodents).
7. Anthropogenic type arisen up as a result of activity of man. (contamination of atmospheric air)
8. Anthropogenic form of the direct operating on nature (unorganized tourism).
9. Lack of information of man. (forming of other dangers related to activity of man)
10. related to the hardwares and technologies of economic activity (high level contamination of atmosphere, storage pool)
11.Naturally anthropogenic type arisen up as a result of activity of man, which provokes the negative action of natural factors. (storage pools, felling of the forest on mountain slopes)

         The sociogen class of anthropogenic danger is primary in forming of ecological danger, as a degree of display of danger of other classes depends on him. Any activity of man is begun with its individual perception and depends on the level of development of man, society and state.
Examining a sociogen danger, as that which is created by society, we select six kinds: legislatively - legal, socially - economic, informatively - educational, scientifically and technical, spiritually - cultural, organizationally - administrative. They engulf the basic spheres of vital functions of humanity every kind is structured on subspecieses.
         Research of sociogen factors of forming of ecological danger in the system of collection of hard domestic wastes on this time is actual enough task. Appeared by us degree knowledge of population in relation to the problem of handling hard domestic wastes (HDW) and also willingness to take part in the program of their separate collection. Developed questionnaire and conducted questioning of inhabitants of north-eastern borough Kremenchuk.
         1793 respondents took part in questioning. On age an audience was distributed thus: to 20 years – 23%, 30-40 years – 40%, to 50 years – 23%, senior 50 years – 13%. The analysis of results of questioning allowed to find out kinds and subspecieses (factors) of sociogen class of ecological danger.
         It is set that majority of population (60%) is not content with the state of cleanness of streets. In spite of it, people practically nothing is done for an improvement the state of ecological safety of the city because not enough familiar with the consequences of displays of ecological danger, have the not formed ecological world view.
         More than half of polled considers that it must be settled the problem of wastes jointly administration and inhabitants (Figure 2). But it is interfered with it organizationally are administrative factors of forming of danger.

 


Figure 2 – Distributing of respondents after an answer for a question: « Do you consider, who must solve problem wastes in our town?»

 

         There is a factor of forming of ecological danger – not efficiency of control system and control in industry of ecological safety. The factor of forming of ecological danger also is the limited participating of public in the decision of ecological questions. This factor has a few the constituents: badly developed infrastructure of publicity, not enough activity of public but other.
         On a question: « Will situation become better with domestic wastes, if the relation of population will change in relation to handling them?» - most polled (67%) answered affirmative, 17% not determined. The problem of domestic wastes, in one or another measure, flusters the far of polled (63 %) (Figure 3). Plenty enough of respondents (21 %) was not determined, that testified to influencing type of danger, which is formed by spiritually – cultural factors. The followings take place: irresponsibility, not enough level of ecological consciousness, not enough level of ecological culture.

 


Figure 3 – Distributing of respondents after an answer for a question: « Are you flustered by the problem of domestic wastes?»

 

         The attitude toward possible influence on the conduct of population in the relation of HDW of population expressed priority of introduction of the system of fines and punishments (Figure 4). It testifies to not enough of ecological propaganda, not enough publicity (type of danger which is formed Informatively-educational factors). There is sense to use ecological propaganda as advertising ecologically safe influence of man on an environment.

 



Figure 4 – Distributing of respondents after an answer for a question: « Is it possible to influence on the conduct
of population in the relation of HDW?»

 

         The some unexpected become results of answers for a question: « Are you ready to assort wastes, if the proper terms will be created?». The only 29% polled answered affirmative. It is conditioned irresponsibility, absence of ethics in attitude toward nature, absence of ecological moral (type of danger that is formed spiritually-cultural factors).
         The results of researches testify to the low enough state of ecological culture of population. For providing of ecological safety we consider that influencing of found out the sociogen factors of forming of danger must be substantially diminished.
         For the increase of level of knowledge of population on questions separate collection of HDW an informative campaign primary purpose of which is conducted – to come into the notice of inhabitants to the problem and induce them to the action.
         Within the framework of campaign, brochures and to cry postals are developed, in which placed information for a population, communal services and municipal power. Created command of volunteers from the students of department of ecology of Kremenchuk Mykhaylo Ostrogradskiy state polytechnic university, which diffused postals and brochures in the district conducting of experiment. At support of municipal power information is published in local newspapers.
         Taking into account that consciousness and mind of child absorb new information far quick, Informatively-educational measures are conducted in schools of select district. Not only come into these same the notice of teachers and children to the problem of HDW but also prepared them to participating in a project.
         A project lasted 6 months, during which we tried to prove a population importance of the put question, to promote the level of ecological knowledges and consciousness, make feeling of responsibility for inhabitants and municipal administration.
         On completion of experiment the repeated questioning is conducted for determination of results of campaign. To separate collection of wastes the 72% polled appeared ready. Information is got testify that a population perceived information properly. Influencing of sociogen factors, discovered during research erected to minimum.
         Materials of researches are given to the organs of municipal power. The deputies of city council confirmed the program of introduction of separate collection and sorting of hard domestic wastes on territory of city a cost 14 million UAH. With the purpose of diminishing of amount of HDW on a city dump it is suggested to inculcate the improvement of the ecological state of environment, receipt of the second raw material, European practice of separate collection of garbage. On container grounds it is foreseen to set separate containers for polymeric wastes, glass, paper, and also mixed wastes.
         As a result of introduction of such program in Kremenchuk the modern effective system of the sanitary cleaning and conduct will be created from HDW, that will allow to stabilize and considerably improve current ecological status of territory of city and surrounding settlements.

Conclusions
         The program of introduction of separate collection of HDW will allow:
1. to decrease the area of grounds and dumps;
2. to reduce the level of the anthropogenic loading on an environment;
3. to decrease the level of contamination of waters but air is on adjoining territories;
4. to reduce the risk of negative action on a health of people;
5. to decrease the risk of distribution of animals, poultries and insects which are the transmitters of different diseases.

BIBLYOGRAPHY
1. Боков В.А., Лущик А.В. Основы экологической безопасности: Учебное пособие. – Симферополь: СОНАТ, 1998. – 224с.
2. Яцик А.В. Екологічна безпека в Україні. – К.: Генеза, 2001. – 216с.
3. Дорогунцов С.И., Ральчук А.Н. Управление техногенно-экологической безопасностью в контексте парадигмы устойчивого развития: концепция системно-динамического решения. – К.: Наукова думка, 2002. – 200с.
4. Трофимов А.М., Панасюк М.В. Геоинформационные системы и проблемы управления окружающей средой. – Казань: Изд-во Казанского ун-та, 1984. – 142с.

Olena Kharlamova, Volodymyr Shmandiy, Volodymyr Bakharev (Kremenchuk , Ukraine)
Influence of territiorial society on substantial diminishing of sociogen factors of ecological threats of handing consumption waste

Збірник матеріалів ІІ-го Всеукраїнського з’їзду екологів з міжнародною участю
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